A full-system SystemC-based simulator for intermittent computing and energy-driven SoCs accurately modelling the interplay between energy-availability, power consumption, and execution in a closed feedback loop.

The power model is based on recording high-level events (memory accesses, peripheral operations etc.) and states (modules on/off, peripheral operation modes etc.), and computing the instantaneous power consumption at runtime. Simultaneously, external circuitry such as, energy storage, power supply and power management are modelled. The power consumption, power supply, and energy-availability, is then used to calculate the supply voltage, which in turn is monitored by the modelled microcontroller. In this way, we can model an embedded system through power cycles.

Some key features of Fused include:

  • Simulates power consumption and power supply in a closed feedback loop;
  • Hosts a GDB server to interface with most software development environments;
  • Enables debugging functionality across power cycles, and the ability to freeze and step through the dynamic power/energy state in lockstep with execution.
  • Executes unmodified binaries to be deployed on real hardware;
  • Allows modelling of complex external circuitry through SystemC-AMS.

Fused was presented at the 2020 ISPASS conference, the Fused presentation video is available on YouTube. Please cite the following paper when using Fused in your research.

"Fused: Closed-loop Performance and Energy Simulation of Embedded Systems"

Sivert T. Sliper, William Wang, Nikos Nikoleris, Alex S. Weddell, Geoff V. Merrett,

2020 International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS),

Boston, MA, USA, 2020.

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Research Area
Intermittent Computing, Energy-aware design
Research Area
energy-efficient computing


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